What are some of the CBD products in the market? What is the difference between CBD oil and hemp oil? How are the products produced, and which is the most effective product? This article explains the difference between the two products and their effectiveness.
It is common for CBD enthusiasts to get stuck deciding whether to buy CBD oil or hempseed oil. Both are extracted from the hemp plant, but which is best for you? CBD, Cannabidiol, is a phytocannabinoid belonging to a group of other one hundred cannabinoids; in particular, CBD is well known after THC, tetrahydrocannabinol. Hemp is a cannabis plant closely related to marijuana, although the two are two different plants. Hemp is known as Cannabis Sativa, whereas marijuana is known as Cannabis Indica. However, the two plants are distinguished by law in terms of their THC content, i.e., hemp is defined as any cannabis plant that contains no more than 0.3 percent of cannabinoids like THC. Hemp is used approved for CBD production even though it is still used to produce hemp oil and other hemp-related products such as ropes and mats.
Cannabis-related plants all harbor most if not of the two most distinctive cannabinoids, i.e., CBD and THC; however they differ in concentration levels of these cannabinoids. According to VanDolah, Bauer, & Mauck (2019), CBD can be obtained from marijuana and hemp, whereas hemp seed oil can be obtained from hemp plants. Cannabidiol is mainly extracted from the leaves, stems, stalks, and roots of the hemp plant, and hempseed oil is obtained from the mature seeds of the hemp plant. This difference in the source of the oils indicates a stark contrast in their composition, taste, and flavor. The unrefined hemp seed oil has a dark green color with a mild nutty flavor to its taste. However, this appearance can change when hempseed oil is refined and adopts a clear color with little to no scent to it.
On the other hand, CBD will appear dark green or almost black due to the presence of terpenes and chlorophyll. Citti et al. (2019) explain that raw CBD oil has an earthy flavor with some notes of grass in it. The taste of refined CBD oil differs due to carrier oils which affect its general taste. Most CBD oils are flavored to offset some of their bitter taste, and they come in a variety of flavors, such as mint and citrus.
Sun et al. (2021) state that hemp seeds have nearly as much protein as soybeans. There are 9.46 g of protein in 30 grams (g) of seeds, or about 3 tablespoons. These seeds are a complete protein source, containing all nine essential amino acids. Hemp seeds are high in essential fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3. They are essential for long-term health. People tend to consume too many omega-6s and too few omega-3s in general, but adding hemp seeds to the diet may help to promote a balance. CBD oil extracts from hemp contain a slightly different composition. Full-spectrum CBD oil contains other cannabinoids such as CBN, CBC, CBG, CBDV, and controlled amounts of THC. Most CBD oil-based products often are limited by regulations on the amount of THC and CBN. Also, CBD oils contain other compounds, i.e., flavonoids and terpenes, which give the oil its flavor and taste. Flavonoids give the oil its distinctive taste and include compounds such as cannflavin, anthocyanin, apigenin, and quercetin. CBD oil also contains terpenes, which give CBD oil its earth-like aroma and includes limonene, humulene, linalool, and Myrcene.
Fathordoobady et al. (2019) state that five main extraction processes are used for hemp seed oil extraction. The most common is Soxhlet (SOX), distinguished by its ease of use and low cost. The percolation (PER) process is based on leaching, which removes molecules from a material. Another technique is ultrasonication (ULT), which uses ultrasonic frequencies (>20 kHz) as the name implies; it has the advantage of reducing extraction time due to the dual effect of physical and chemical separation. Pyrolysis (PYR) is a thermal decomposition technique used to produce bio-oil. The process takes place in an inert environment, and the byproducts are used in the petroleum industry. CO2 extraction is the most commonly used method for extracting CBD. A closed-loop extractor is used in this method, which is a system for extracting essential oils for perfumes and creating food additives. The hemp is then placed in a chamber filled with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is converted to a liquid by applying pressure to the chamber, absorbing the hemp's oils and flavors. As a result, a liquid containing carbon dioxide and CBD is produced. CBD can also be extracted using liquid solvents, ethanol, butane, or isopropyl alcohol. It is widely regarded as one of the most straightforward extraction methods. Experts claim that because ethanol is a plant-based solvent, it helps preserve the natural chemical properties of hemp during extraction.
According to Citti et al. (2019), hempseed oil is mainly administered through two main methods, i.e., topically and the oral route. Hempseed oil can be ingested by an individual orally through edibles such as gummies and hempseed oil capsules. Oral administration of hempseed oil is best suited when one has regular stomach inflammation issues, nausea, diarrhea, and cramping. One can also apply hempseed oil topically by using lotions, balms, and ointments that are infused with CBD oil. It may be suitable to apply CBD topically when one has various skin conditions and wants to combat the issue directly. According to Varlet et al. (2016), CBD oil has at least five administration methods; it can be administered orally, through the sublingual route, using vapes and vape juices, topically, and through the use of edibles. Oral administration may be administered in the form of capsules or through the use of CBD capsules which are ingested orally. This method is effective when one wants a long-lasting effect. CBD vapes are administered under the tongue and are absorbed by the numerous blood vessels under the tongue. CBD vapes and sublingual are effective when one wants instant an immediate kick of the effects of CBD, although the downside is that they do not provide a long-lasting effect.
CBD and hempseed are both sourced from the hemp plant but vary in the part of the plant used. CBD is obtained from the whole of the hemp plant except the usage of its seeds. Cold pressing mature hemp seeds obtain hemp seed oil. Hempseed oil contains proteins and unsaturated fats that are beneficial in promoting human health. CBD oil contains terpenes, flavonoids, and other cannabinoids, which enhance the effects of CBD oil in the body.
Citti, C., Linciano, P., Panseri, S., Vezzalini, F., Forni, F., Vandelli, M. A., & Cannazza, G. (2019). Cannabinoid profiling of hemp seed oil by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Frontiers in plant science, 10, 120.
Fathordoobady, F., Singh, A., Kitts, D. D., & Pratap Singh, A. (2019). Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) extract anti-microbial properties, methods of extraction, and potential oral delivery. Food Reviews International, 35(7), 664-684.
Sun, X., Sun, Y., Li, Y., Wu, Q., & Wang, L. (2021). Identification and Characterization of the Seed Storage Proteins and Related Genes of Cannabis sativa L. Frontiers in nutrition, 8, 297.
VanDolah, H. J., Bauer, B. A., & Mauck, K. F. (2019, September). Clinicians’ guide to cannabidiol and hemp oils. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 94, No. 9, pp. 1840-1851). Elsevier.
Varlet, V., Concha-Lozano, N., Berthet, A., Plateel, G., Favrat, B., De Cesare, M., ... & Giroud, C. (2016). Drug vaping applied to cannabis: is “Cannavaping” a therapeutic alternative to marijuana?. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 1-13.