Full-spectrum CBD oil (up to date list of 11+ components)

Full-spectrum CBD oil is one of the three main types of CBD oil. CBD oil is a wellness supplement that infuses a hemp-based cannabidiol extract with an inert organic carrier oil such as triglyceride or olive oil. Typically, CBD oil is non-psychedelic, although full-spectrum CBD oils contain regulated amounts of the psychedelic compound THC. Full-spectrum CBD is extracted using the hydrocarbon extraction method, facilitating the tweaking of hemp CBD extracts. It offers more potential health and wellness benefits due to a reinforced entourage effect resulting from the collective benefits of various terpenes and cannabinoids in the product. This article lists some of the hemp-based components contained in full-spectrum CBD oil.


Cannabidiol (CBD)

Cannabidiol is the primary component of CBD oil from which the product name is designed. According to Kalaba & Ware (2021), CBD offers potential relief from various physical and mental ailments such as anxiety and pain. It may also help with addiction and insomnia. CBD is typically non-psychedelic. This means that it can deliver desired effects without unwanted intoxication effects.


Cannabigerol (CBG)

Cannabigerol is one of the known cannabinoids found in the hemp plant. It is formed from the decarboxylation of cannabigerol acid. CBG works by interacting with the endocannabinoid receptors to reinforce the properties of anandamide. Anandamide is the neurotransmitter that relays virtual emotions such as pleasure and motivation. It also influences pain management, sleep, and appetite regulation. CBG is believed to be more powerful than both THC and CBD, as it is a parent compound to both components.


CBN (Cannabinol)

CBN is a non-psychedelic compound found mostly in cannabis products stored for long periods. It is obtained from the psychedelic compound tetrahydrocannabinol. CBN occurs gradually due to continued exposure of CBD oil to air or direct UV light. THCA forms CBNA, which then undergoes decarboxylation to form CBN.


Cannabichromene (CBC)

Cannabichromene is also known as pentylcannabichromene or simply cannabichromene. It is a non-psychedelic compound believed to contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties of full-spectrum CBD oil. It is also believed to hold possible pain-relieving properties. According to Ligresti & Petrocellis (2016), CBC reportedly aids in the growth of the human mind by enhancing the development of brain cells through neurogenesis.


THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)

THC is the component of hemp that is associated with the sensational 'high' feeling in most recreational cannabis products. Delta-9 THC is a psychedelic compound believed to reinforce the sedative properties of CBD by inducing a numbing effect on the brain's receptors. THC may have adverse side effects for some users, and scientists believe it may lead to eventual addiction if taken in large amounts. Therefore, THC in full-spectrum oil is restricted to a subtle, harmless percentage of 0.3%.


THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)

THCV is a homologous form of THC. It has a different propyl side-chain that causes it to have notably different effects from THC. It is, however, also a psychedelic compound. THCV is an inflective variant of THCVA. It is also believed to reinforce the sedative and pain-relieving properties of CBD by inducing a numbing effect through a reduction of activity around the endocannabinoid transmitters and receptors.


Beta-caryophyllene

This is the terpene attributed to the distinctive aroma of black pepper. It is also contained in many strains of the hemp plant. Beta-caryophyllene is reputed to offer potential sedative and anti-inflammation effects. It is an important component of full-spectrum CBD oil in aiding pain relief. It also contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of full-spectrum CBD oil. Pre-clinical trials also suggest that beta-caryophyllene may help manage substance dependency and addiction. Full-spectrum CBD oil with this terpene may provide a friendly option for cutting back on THC dependency.

Alpha-humulene

This is a terpene found in various strains of the hemp plant. It has a fruity smell. It is also contained in sagebrush and ginseng, a herb used by ancient Chinese healers. Alpha-humulene is reputedly anti-inflammatory. It is also believed to help in scaling down appetite. The alpha-humulene terpene contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of full-spectrum CBD oil and offers potential appetite management properties. In addition, this terpene adds a fruity flavor to the full-spectrum CBD oil.


Myrcene

Myrcene is a terpene named after a famous shrub popularly used by Brazilian organic physicians for multiple treatments. It is believed to have positive advantages for treating various health conditions, including diarrhea, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This component contributes multiple potential advantages to the entourage effect of full-spectrum CBD oil.


Linalool

The appealing scent of lavender is attributed to this terpene. It is also found in popular kitchen spices, including cinnamon and coriander. It produces sedative and relaxation effects. Linalool is also reputed to manage convulsions. This suggests it may be potentially useful in containing seizures. This terpene contributes to the potential anti-seizure properties of full-spectrum CBD oil. It also helps mask the earthy taste of CBD oil by adding a considerably pleasant aroma.


Limonene

Limonene originates mostly from citrus peels. It produces the lemon-like scent found in various household cleaning products and foodstuffs. Limonene adds flavor to full-spectrum CBD oil. Lemon-flavored full-spectrum CBD oil is perfect for creating CBD-infused recipes. This terpene also makes up the ingredients in most solvents and pesticides. Additionally, Bigdeli, Asle-Rousta, & Rehnema (2019) suggested that limonene could work effectively against anxiety. Limonene possibly contributes anti-anxiety properties to the entourage effects of full-spectrum CBD oil.


Pinene

Pinene is one of the terpenes contained in full-spectrum CBD oil. Ancient Chinese physicians popularly used it to control the multiplication of cancer cells in patients. This contributes potential anti-cancer properties to the entourage effect of full-spectrum CBD oil.


Conclusion

Full-spectrum CBD oil is the most compound-inclusive type of CBD oil. In addition to CBD, it contains other hemp-based cannabinoids such as CBN, CBG, and the psychoactive compound THC. It also contains essential terpenes such as linalool, alpha-humulene, and beta-caryophyllene. Full-spectrum CBD is extracted using the hydrocarbon extraction method. It is subjected to little processing to preserve as much of the delicate inherent natural components as possible. This ensures the ensuing supplement is closer to the natural plant extract. Full-spectrum CBD oil offers the most potent entourage effect resulting from multiple components working together to produce comprehensive effects.


References

Bigdeli, Y., Asle-Rousta, M., & Rahnema, M. (2019). Effects of limonene on chronic restraint stress-induced memory impairment and anxiety in male rats. Neurophysiology, 51(2), 107-113.

Kalaba, M., & Ware, M. A. (2021). Cannabinoid profiles in medical cannabis users: Effects of age, gender, symptoms, and duration of use. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.

Ligresti, A., De Petrocellis, L., & Di Marzo, V. (2016). From phytocannabinoids to cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids: pleiotropic physiological and pathological roles through complex pharmacology. Physiological reviews, 96(4), 1593-1659.

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